What Is Agreement In Isizulu

Note that the affirmative subjunctive is identical to the affirmative remotely, except that the infix -a- is short. In regular zulu spelling, where the vocal length is not marked, this distinction becomes invisible. The three negative alternative forms of the past are brought together to varying degrees. The first form is the no-contract form. Zulu spelling does not indicate a vocal length or tone, but it may be important to consider it in a grammar description. The following diacritic markers are used in this article to display aspects that the default spelling does not take into account. The material forms of ownership of a name also have its own copulative. They are formed and used in the same way as for the basic name and still use the prefix ng. The subject and, if necessary, the subject of the verb are displayed by prefixes or concords attached to the verb trunk. Zulu is a pro-drop language: explicit personal pronouns are used only to emphasize, while views of the verb generally give enough information.

When a Nostun is used as a subject or object, the concord must correspond to its class. To refer to someone in the third person without a Nov, classes 1 and 2 are used. The subject of concord must always be present, except in the infinite and imperative forms. The focus of the object is always optional, even if an explicit object follows the verb. Infinitive can also sometimes be a result name or another noun associated with the verb. For example, while the infinite uk in its regular meaning is “eating,” it also has the lexical meaning of “food.” This differs by verb and is a lexical property of this particular infinitive form and must therefore be learned for each of them. In general, the forms of contraction levels 4 or 5 are used. For monosyllabic verbs or verbs beginning with vowels, the contraction only passes to level 3, so that the -ku-remains. Keep in mind that, in the most complicated form, the distinction between the immediate and distant past disappears completely. Each nomiary strain (without prefix) has an intrinsic sound pattern in which each syllable is naturally elevated (H) or low (L). For example, the trunk -ntu of the name is the model L (a single syllable weakly dyed), while the trunk -f`b` of nomène has an underlying HH pattern (two high-tone syllables).

There are several rules that act to change the underlying sounds, to create the final sound model, which is actually used in the language. Thus, spoken sounds can be very different from the underlying sounds. This can already be seen in the example of sifba, where an underlying HH model is actually pronounced as FL (falling-low). Prefixes are always added in a fixed order. The prefix of the object always arrives last, just before the trunk, while the prefix of the object passes in front of the prefix of the object. Some prefixes of tension, mood and polarity can be escaped between the subject`s prefix and the object prefix or placed in front of the subject`s prefix. There must be no prefix between the object`s prefix and the trunk. For example, w`lipheka “he/she cooked it” consists of a “cooking” strain-pheka, preceded, in reverse order, by a prefix of li- object (class 5), a — marker, and the subject`s prefix (he/she/class 1, which is done if a vowel follows) in reverse order. The angikuboni form “I don`t see you” consists of a trunk bonus (the negative strain of -bona”), preceded by the object prefix (second singular person), the subject prefix (the person`s first singular) and the negative marker. For Class 1a subtantives, the prefix, expanded with ka, is always attached to the simple form.

[Clarification needed] The Concord copulative adjective consists only of the simple nobis code, except in Class 9, where the interior is fully used, and the class 8 which has an additional n. The forms for the first and second person also exist.